Preprofessional, Graduate School and Gap Years

Planning to continue your education or take some time off for volunteer work or travel before your next step? Our Career Development staff can help you plan that journey, as well. 28 percent of Arts & Sciences Class of 2019 continued their education in graduate or professional school. Your broad liberal arts education as an undergraduate prepares you well for entry into law school, medical school or other graduate programs. 

Your choice of major does not lock you into — or out of — a particular career path. You can major in the history of art and still be pre-med. You can major in chemistry and still be pre-law. You can explore your varied interests, take advantage of the incredible academic diversity in the College of Arts & Sciences and be confident that your liberal arts education is preparing you for a successful career and a life well lived. It is important to connect with career development counselors early and often to ensure that you are on track for success.

Graduate School

If you're headed to a career in academia, business, law or medicine, attending graduate school may be a requirement, but for many other students, the decision to attend graduate school comes after deep consideration of the options. Will it offer you an extra boost in the labor market or potentially increase your salary? Should you go directly to graduate school or gain work experience first?

Before you make a decision, talk to a career advisor to discuss your plans. We also encourage you to discuss your graduate school plans with your academic advising dean as well as faculty in your academic department. Faculty and TAs in your department are the best source of information on graduate studies in your field

To Apply, or Not To Apply

Before you start your applications or even researching programs that may be right for you, sit down and have a conversation with yourself, our staff, and your faculty.  Why do you want to go to graduate school?  What education is required or preferred in your field of choice?  What will you use your degree for, and what is your plan for after you receive your degree?  Is this degree necessary for the job you’re aiming for?  What would your investment be, in terms of both time and money, and are you prepared for this investment?  Think critically about these questions and your answers, and investigate the career options associated with intended graduate fields of study.  

In your chats, speak to faculty candidly about programs and your own work, and ask current graduate students on campus about their work and experiences.  We cannot stress enough how important conversations with your faculty are.  Check with your faculty office hours, and knock on their door.  Ask if they have a moment to discuss your plans and ideas for graduate work, and your academic/intellectual interests.  

Continue your conversations with them even after you graduate.  Send an update or a message about an article that reminded you about part of their class, etc.  Continue to ask them for their ideas and feedback.  Seek out alumni for similar conversations with those who have entered the field, or search for other people in or out of your network.  

Pre-professional degrees and other graduate degrees each have diverse timelines.  Students interested in medical school, for example, need to be aware of their timelines and requirements related to coursework much earlier than students interested in pursuing a PhD in English Literature.  Indeed, PhD programs are more flexible and diverse in what they require from applicants – do your research on programs and their admission requirements, and base your timeline and steps off this information.

General Timeline and Next Steps

Once you decide on attending graduate school, it’s important to check off a few things while you’re still on campus:  


Your path towards graduate school actually begins early in your college years, even if you plan to apply later after graduation. Build faculty connections during your first years on campus to create relationships and identify letter writers.  Get to know them as mentors – approach them with questions about if you should apply and how/when.  Faculty in your field of interest are the most valuable resource to your search, and can provide accurate information on the best programs, and how to present your applications!  Utilize them as a resource.  Seek out smaller seminar courses as well, so that you can build intimate relationships.  

Familiarize yourself with required coursework early on as well.  This is particularly important for students who are going into professional programs, such as medical school.

Find listservs, lectures, colloquia, or organizations on campus that are related to your work.  Attend!  Did you enjoy a particular talk?  Approach the person afterward and request their contact information to continue the conversation.  You can set your own calendar to auto-update with Cornell’s calendar of events, and filter for certain types of events like colloquia or seminars.  We recommend doing this so that you can optimize your engagement on campus.  


Often, it can be critical to get some kind of research experience under your belt to prepare for graduate school.  Sometimes your field prevents this – often it is difficult for English students to receive RA positions, for example.  Be sure to continue to work diligently and speak with folks who are familiar with the field to search for opportunities and to get a solid idea of what the expectations are for undergraduate work as preparation for your plans.  

Also, do your own research on admissions requirements in programs that might be of interest to you.  Have a thorough understanding of what you need to do while on campus to build your applications and credentials early on.  For example, comparative literature programs often require a third foreign language – build this into your schedule while at Cornell.  Also, remember that application requirements can be diverse, even within a particular field.  

Talk to Beth Fiori about fellowship opportunities as related to your interests.  Be sure to do this early on!


Continue to familiarize yourself with the application requirements for your programs of choice.  At this point, we can start a planning sheet for your graduate school applications to go over various requirements, associated fees, faculty and courses of interest, and so on.  

If your field or programs of interest require an entry test, like the MCAT, GRE or LSAT, review the test timelines carefully.  How long are your test scores valid?  How much time do you need to study for this test?  By when are you hoping to have your applications completed?   When do test scores need to be submitted to be considered valid with your application?  Select a test date (or a general timeframe in which you should take your test) according to your answers to the above questions.  

Continue to build relationships with faculty, and begin to strategize on faculty you would like to serve as your letter writers.  We cannot stress enough the importance of your relationships with faculty!

If you haven't yet, speak with Beth Fiori about fellowships related to your interests.


During the Fall semester, get in touch with Beth Fiori to review fellowship opportunities.  If you do not plan to take gap years, request letters of recommendation at least two months in advance of your application deadline.  Remain in frequent contact with your letter writers, and speak candidly about your application plans, programs of interest, and deadlines.  Remain courteous in all communications – remember that this is a professional correspondence, and should be treated with a great deal of respect.  

If you are not applying to attend directly after college, be sure to utilize interfolio to store your letters.  Request letters of recommendation from faculty while you are still on campus, so that they may simply update the letters at the time of application.  

It is also a thoughtful gesture to send thank you notes to your writers after you have submitted all applications.  You should certainly inform them of your application results afterwards as well.

Funding and Finances

Be aware early on of grant and scholarship opportunities to fund your study.  Check out the following resources, especially databases like FastwebFastAid, and ProFellow (which was founded by an A&S graduate!).  As always, be sure to speak with Beth Fiori about fellowship opportunities.  Connect with her early on, in your sophomore or junior year, and certainly during Fall of your senior year.

Law School

Interested in law school? 

Consult with the A&S Career Development pre-law advisor, Diane Miller, for support with preparing for law school, choosing schools, understanding the application process, and more. We encourage students to review the Pre-Law module on the Career Development Toolkit.

For seniors applying to law school, dean’s certification letters can be obtained with a few weeks advance notice. In order to submit your Cornell records to a law school complete this Information Release Request form to authorize Cornell to release your academic and disciplinary information (If you are unable to access the form with Cornell's two-step log-in, please use this release form). Allow four weeks for this process. Once your record has been checked, a letter is prepared and kept on file to be sent out with the law school forms.

Health Careers

Interested in medical school or other health careers?

Many rewarding occupations exist in the field of healthcare, and many of these career paths involve additional schooling post-graduation. Medical school, dental school, veterinary school and a host of other health graduate programs are common destinations for Arts & Sciences students.

You can also consult with your advising dean for advice on course requirements and academic preparation. 

Gap Years

Taking Time Off Before Graduate School

Do you want to take a year or two to explore the world, develop your skills, take on a new challenge, or give back to the community? If so, a gap year may be for you; schedule an appointment with a career counselor to discuss your options. 

Concerned about future employment? The experience gained and skills developed through service will strengthen your candidacy in your job search.

Concerned about finances? Formal programs are usually paid, sometimes with a small stipend, sometimes an actual salary. Additionally, many programs offer education awards to apply toward student loan repayment or future education. If you want to branch out and do something on your own, resources are available to help you identify funding sources.

Additional Postgraduate Resources